Part V Family Law, 26 Cross-border Surrogacy
Uglješa Grušić, Christian Heinze, Louise Merrett, Alex Mills, Carmen Otero García-Castrillón, Zheng Sophia Tang, Katarina Trimmings, Lara WalkerEdited By: Paul Torremans, James J. Fawcett
- Choice of law clauses — Applicable law — Children
This chapter examines issues surrounding the regulation of cross-border surrogacy. There is a complete void in the regulation of surrogacy arrangements at the international level, with no specific provisions designed to regulate this emerging area of international family law. In the absence of a global legislative response, highly complex legal problems arise. Among these problems, the key private international law issue is legal parenthood, along with nationality and immigration. This chapter first addresses the issue regarding legal parenthood as it relates to cross-border surrogacy before discussing the diversity in national approaches to surrogacy. It then analyses the UK approach to surrogacy, focusing on ‘section 54’ requirements of Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 and authorisation of payments to surrogate mothers that exceed the reasonable pregnancy-related expenses, and concludes with an overview of human rights considerations relating to cross-border surrogacy.