- Credit risk — Capital markets
This chapter discusses the key features of project financing in the following sectors: oil and gas mining, conventional power, renewable energy, and nuclear power. The chapter is organized as follows. Section A on oil and gas covers project structuring, sales contracts, key risks in an oil and gas project, and financial considerations. Section B on mining covers environmental and social impact, completion risk, reserve estimates and market risks, resource nationalism and political risk, terms of a mining financing; and steaming agreements, royalty agreements, and other alternative finance options. Section C on conventional power covers the IPP model, an overview of power markets, IPP risk allocation and contractual structure, key risks in an independent power project, and financing considerations. Sections D and E cover renewable energy and nuclear power projects, respectively. Section F focuses on the development and financing of public infrastructure and public private partnership (PPP) projects.