- Credit — Credit derivatives — Swaps — Global custody — Money market securities — Collateral agreement — International financial system — International monetary conduct
This chapter examines collateral transactions. Being the backbone of secured funding with financial market counterparties, collateral underpins a variety of financial transactions within the global marketplace, such as repurchase agreements (repos), securities lending, and derivatives transactions-often collectively referred to as 'collateralised finance transactions' or simply 'collateral transactions'. In order to legally underpin a collateral transaction, parties to the transaction generally enter into the applicable master agreement, which will be a standard template document created and maintained by the relevant industry association. These include the Global Master Repurchase Agreement for repos; the Global Master Securities Lending Agreement for securities lending transactions; and the International Swaps and Derivative Association Credit Support Annex under the ISDA Master Agreement for derivatives transactions. The master agreements are standardised contracts in effect setting out the rights and obligations of the parties to relevant transactions. These contracts provide market participants with substantial standardization, efficiency, predictability, legal certainty, and flexibility in respect of legal and commercial aspects of transactions. In essence, these contracts are so widely used and with so little derogations that they function as lex mercatoria or the international law that applies to certain transactions between certain market participants.
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