- Bills of lading and carriage of goods — Charter parties — Documents of carriage
This chapter examines bills of lading. While it was recognized that the holder of the bill of lading could acquire the property in the goods, it was in the second half of the nineteenth century that the character of the bill of lading as a symbol of the goods was formally recognized. Modern bills of lading are widely recognized as having the following three principal functions: “(a) a receipt by the carrier acknowledging the shipment of the goods on a particular vessel for carriage to a particular destination; (b) a memorandum of the terms of the contract of carriage, which will usually have been concluded before the signing of the document; (c) a document of title to the goods which enables the consignee to take delivery of the goods at their destination or to dispose of them by the indorsement and delivery of the bill of lading.” More broadly, there is a recognition of the leading role that bills of lading play in international trade. The chapter then considers liner bills of lading; straight bills of lading; charterparty bills of lading; freight forwarders’ bills of lading; through (combined transport) bills of lading; and multimodal transport bills of lading.
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