- Carrier's obligations — Shipper's obligations and immunities
This chapter explains seaworthiness and care for cargo. In every contract of affreightment, except where the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 applies, there is an implied undertaking on the part of the shipowner to provide a seaworthy vessel. Contracts for the carriage of goods by sea do not contain a definition of seaworthiness; indeed, the usual charterparty wording provides that the shipowner’s vessel is ‘strong and staunch’ or ‘tight and fit’. The obligation to provide a seaworthy vessel is not demanded in abstract terms, being relative to the nature of the ship, the particular voyage, the time of the year, the stages of that voyage, the cargoes which the shipowner has contracted to carry, and the relevant standards for the carrying of cargoes at the applicable time. The chapter then considers the carrier’s duty to care for cargo, which arises contractually and in bailment.
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