- Regulation of carriage of goods
This chapter examines the rise of international regulation on the carriage of goods. It begins by looking at the Hague Rules, the text of which was discussed by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) at an inaugural meeting in London in June of 1921. The aim of the Hague Rules was to achieve a better balance between the interests of shipowners and cargo owners. It regulates the rights, duties, and immunities of the carrier under a contract of carriage by sea covered by a bill of lading, in relation to the shipper, the consignee named in the bill of lading, and the endorsee of the bill of lading. The Visby Protocol expanded the scope of application of the Hague Rules, but it did not radically alter the compromise between the demands of carriers on the one hand and cargo interests on the other. The chapter then looks at the SDR Protocol.
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