- Bills of lading and carriage of goods — Documents of carriage
This chapter reviews paperless bills of lading. Technological advances in the field of maritime commerce has provided strong impetus for the revision of current transport documentation procedures, the use of other carriage documents, renewed interest in the adoption of electronic bills of lading, and the increasing prominence of online web portals. One of the greatest challenges with electronic bills of lading has been mapping the tripartite functions of bills of lading. The chapter then looks at SeaDocs Registry Limited (SeaDocs), which acted as depository and custodian of the paper-based original bill of lading as well as a registry of bill of lading negotiations. It also considers the Comité Maritime International (CMI) Rules for Electronic Bills of Lading; Bolero (Bills of Lading for Europe), essDOCS, and e-titleTM; the Rotterdam Rules and the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce; and blockchain bills of lading.
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