Part I The Elements of Bank Financial Supervision, 4 The Composition of Bank Capital
- Regulation of banks — Capital adequacy — Tier 1 capital — Tier 2 capital
This chapter discusses the concept of bank capital. The essence of regulatory capital requirements as originally conceived was to procure that banks had sufficient capital to absorb both expected and unexpected losses. However, recent market developments have indicated two different but important functions of capital. Going Concern Capital is that capital which can absorb losses, both when the firm is in a state of financial health and during periods of financial stress, thus maintaining market confidence in the financial system and avoiding disruption to depositors. Gone Concern Capital is that capital which absorbs losses on the failure of a firm, protecting depositors in a winding up or resolution. The remainder of the chapter covers Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital; deductions; bank holdings in banking, financial, and insurance entities; provisioning, expected loss and revaluation; and capital monitoring.