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Defining Issues in International Arbitration - Celebrating 100 Years of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators edited by Betancourt, Julio César

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Edited By: Julio César Betancourt

From: Defining Issues in International Arbitration: Celebrating 100 Years of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators

Edited By: Julio César Betancourt

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From: Oxford Legal Research Library (http://olrl.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved. Subscriber: null; date: 25 August 2019

(p. 449) Index

AAA Webfile 35.86
abuse of process doctrine
arbitration, in
applicability 33.03, 33.18–33.19
powers to dismiss proceedings 33.20–33.26, 33.45
public interest, and 33.24
benefits 33.07
civil law jurisdictions, in 33.29
collateral attacks on previous awards 33.10–33.17
collateral attacks on previous judgments 33.08–33.09
historical development 33.05–33.07
jurisdiction, applicability 33.27–33.32
lack of identity, and 33.11–33.12, 33.17
principle of finality, and 33.33–33.40
public vs private interests, and 33.41–33.44
sources of 33.04, 33.28–33.40
ad hoc arbitration
vs institutional arbitration 2.04–2.08
admissibility
arbitral award enforcement 7.51
evidence 37.09
procedural arbitrability 7.06–7.10, 7.07–7.10, 7.19–7.24, 7.29, 7.51
after-the-event insurance 26.25, 27.36, 27.39
aggressive tactics see behaviour in tribunals
American Arbitration Association
arbitration caseload 35.81
code of ethics 13.04
National Construction Dispute Resolution Committee 35.22
annulled awards
arbitrator reprimands for 23.83–23.88
foreign decisions, enforceability of 31.29–31.30
ICSID Rules 2.13
jurisdictional challenges 1.22–1.27
seat of arbitration, at 1.22–1.27
Appeal Chamber for the Special Tribunal for Lebanon 13.11
appeals see also judicial review
grounds for 1.14–1.17
problems with 1.20–1.21
procedural fairness model 1.18–1.21
applicable language
choice of
bilingual cases 10.29–10.30
changes 10.35
conflict, practical solutions to 10.35–10.36
convenience of parties 10.34, 10.36
English, benefits and disadvantages 10.07, 10.09
practical consequences 10.07–10.08
silence regarding 10.02, 10.14–10.17
substantive consequences 10.09–10.12
underlying contract, and 10.11–10.12
definition 10.04–10.05
identification 10.06–10.12, 10.37–10.38
contract, applicable law 10.21–10.24
contract, language of 10.19–10.20
equal treatment principle, and 10.31–10.34, 10.38
evidence, language of 10.26–10.27
priorities and presumptions 10.19–10.20
seat, language of 10.25
witnesses, language of 10.28–10.30
translations 10.06–10.07, 10.10
applicable law
award enforcement 8.42
choice of law clauses 8.17, 8.43–8.46, 9.01–9.02
enquiry into, need for 9.05–9.14
group of countries doctrine 8.17–8.18
implied choice 9.22–9.23, 9.27–9.28
importance of 8.14–8.23, 9.39–9.40
interpretation conflicts 8.17–8.23
Born’s approach 8.12, 8.40–8.47
cumulative approach 8.12, 8.40–8.47
law governing arbitration agreement 9.05–9.09
law governing proceedings (lex arbitri) 9.05, 9.07, 9.26
law governing substance of dispute (lex causae) 9.05–9.08, 9.15–9.23
law of seat, of 9.19–9.20, 9.24–9.29
main contract approach 9.15–9.23
Mustill’s approach 8.28–8.35
Spigelman’s approach 8.36–8.39
transnational approach 8.31–8.35, 8.37
pre-arbitration requirements 8.23
separability principle 8.42–8.43, 9.09–9.10
validation principle 9.37
arbitrability 7.52
burden of proof 7.47, 7.50
choice of law clauses, validity 7.33, 7.35
definition 7.03–7.06
formal validity 7.45–7.46
interpretation
award enforcement stage of dispute, in 7.04, 7.16, 7.22–7.24, 7.26, 7.31, 7.37–7.51
French approach 7.25–7.29
preliminary stage of dispute, in 7.04, 7.11–7.29, 7.26–7.27
tribunal stage of dispute, in 7.04, 7.26, 7.30–7.36
US approach 7.19–7.24
validity-preferring approach 7.34–7.35
judicial inconsistencies 7.31
judicial review 7.16
(p. 450) kompetenz-kompetenz negative effect 7.16–7.29
non-arbitrable subject matter 7.44
non-existence of agreement 7.49
party autonomy, and 7.32–7.33, 7.35
scope, issues of 7.50
seat of arbitration, applicable law 7.36
separability 7.12–7.15
setting aside awards 7.37–7.43, 7.48
substantive validity 7.47–7.48
substantive vs procedural arbitrability 7.07–7.10, 7.19–7.29, 7.51
arbitral institutions, generally see also institutional arbitration; international arbitration; individual institutions by name
efficiency 2.29
flexibility 2.30
informal interactions 2.31
institutional vs ad hoc arbitration 2.04–2.08
party involvement 2.32
personal interactions 2.33–2.34
purpose 6.10–6.11
roles of 2.09–2.17
arbitration agreements
applicable law 8.10–8.23
Mustill’s approach 8.28–8.35
arbitrability, definition 7.03–7.06
choice of law clauses, validity 7.33
conflicts of law, convention rules 9.12–9.13
contract clauses 6.06
drafting
appointing sole arbitrator 12.16–12.22
default provisions 12.16, 12.19
documents only arbitration 12.38
expedited arbitration 12.23–12.33
over-engineering, and 12.14
summary dismissal 12.34–12.45
submission agreements 6.07–6.09
validity, challenging 7.01–7.02
arbitration awards, generally see also annulled awards; enforcement of arbitral awards
binding nature of 33.33–33.38
foreign judgments, differences from 31.28
independence 31.23–31.24
legal status 31.23–31.24
non-state law choice, and 31.17–31.19
perjury, and 20.31
arbitration conventions, generally see also New York Convention; UNCITRAL Model Law
failings of 8.41–8.42
arbitration, generally
absence of law, and 1.04
appeal grounds 1.14–1.17
attitudes towards 23.60–23.67
benefits of 4.24–4.31, 11.12, 12.09
challenge criteria 1.14–1.17
challenges for 1.39–1.40, 1.45
choice of, influences on 12.09–12.14
choice of law, and 31.10–31.16
client-centred processes 4.11–4.16
conflicts 1.14–1.17, 1.21
contract law, and 1.06, 1.08–1.09
duration of cases, trends 12.03–12.04
essential steps 1.33
flexibility 2.30, 4.26–4.31
hard vs soft law 1.10–1.13
historical development 6.24–6.25, 29.02–29.15
informality, benefits of 1.42–1.43
judicial specialization 30.10–30.14
jurisdiction 1.08, 1.29–1.33
legal principles, differences from 1.34–1.37
limitations 1.13
litigation, differences from 11.10–11.12
motivation 1.01–1.03
preference for, trends 12.02
procedural fairness model 1.18–1.21
questions of law or fact 1.14–1.17
sanctions 1.05, 1.12
scope of cases 1.39–1.40, 1.42
types, comparison of 21.14–21.15
in writing requirement 1.09, 6.17, 9.11
arbitrators, generally see also behaviour in tribunals; emergency arbitrators
active retirement trends 35.78–35.79, 35.103
alienating 11.03
behavioural determinants 23.10–23.15
bias, waiver of 1.28
characteristics 11.23
choice of language, and 10.07–10.09
conduct guidelines 3.12, 3.37–3.44
disciplinary procedures 13.28–13.29
education 30.03–30.08
arbitral institution approaches 30.18–30.22
conferences and seminars 30.15–30.17
governmental and NGO approaches 30.23–30.25
outreach initiatives 30.18–30.27
private promotion programmes 30.26–30.27
fame and prestige 23.48–23.59
incentives and constraints 23.06–23.09
influences on 23.01–23.02
initiatives 22.84
arbitrator experience, and 22.59–22.62
ascertain and apply law, to 22.41–22.48
clarify party requests, to 22.83
default proceedings 22.77–22.79
discretionary exercise of 22.49–22.83
establish facts, to 22.06–22.40
institutional rules basis 22.21–22.40
nature of arbitration, and 22.58
parties’ background and experience 22.56–22.57, 22.63–22.65
parties’ expectations, and 22.55
powers to take 22.06–22.83
procedural agreements on 22.54
procedural efficiency, and 22.66–22.69
procedural fairness, and 22.70–22.72
public policy or interest, and 22.72–22.77
(p. 451) standards, facts vs law issues 22.80–22.82
statutory basis 22.07, 22.09–22.20
justice, as aim of 23.68–23.82
market value 23.18–23.24
morality 23.03–23.05
orientation 22.01
perceptions of 23.60–23.67
powers
agreement-based 21.01–21.03
anti-misconduct 13.11–13.14
discretionary 21.09, 21.11
dismiss abusive proceedings, to 33.20–33.26, 33.45
disqualify counsel, to 21.30–21.33
fulfil adjudicatory function, to 21.24–21.25, 21.41
impose sanctions, to 21.26–21.29
investigate fraud or corruption, to 21.29
kompetenz-kompetenz doctrine 21.16–21.17
scope and limitations 21.04–21.05, 21.39–21.42
take initiative, to 22.06–22.83
remuneration 2.15, 23.16–23.44
social capital 23.25–23.28
sole arbitrators, use trends 12.17
specialization 23.29–23.31
Australia
expert conferencing 19.07
judicial specialization 30.10
Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration
costs allocation 25.23
emergency arbitration 14.06–14.07, 14.15–14.20, 14.32
BATNA analysis 28.32–28.33
before-the-event insurance 26.25
behaviour in tribunals
arbitrators, of
avoiding reprimand for annulled/challenged awards, and 23.83–23.88
behavioural determinants 23.10–23.15
conduct guidelines 3.12, 3.37–3.44
fame and prestige 23.48–23.59
incentives and constraints 23.06–23.09
income, and 23.16–23.44
justice, and 23.68–23.82
market value, and 23.18–23.24
misunderstandings 22.01–22.03
morality, and 23.03–23.05
reputation, and 23.42, 23.45–23.47
social capital, and 23.25–23.28
specialization 23.29–23.31
cognitive psychology insights 35.99–35.102
confrontation or aggression from parties 11.01–11.02, 11.10–11.12
arbitrator reluctance, and 11.17–11.19
client wishes, and 11.13–11.14
cultural expectations 11.16
implications 11.20–11.24
lawyers’ obligations 11.13–11.14
practitioner unfamiliarity 11.15
prevention approaches 11.30–11.32
consensus 11.04–11.09
non-signatory involvement, and 11.08
costs allocation, influences on 25.28–25.35, 25.48
counterproductive advocacy 11.25
aggravating tribunal 11.28
poor presentation 11.29
reluctance to agree 11.27
unmeritorious tactics 11.26
management of
document presentation rules 11.34
formality and authority 11.31–11.32
oral advocacy 11.33
misconduct 11.22
arbitrators’ conduct guidelines 3.12, 3.37–3.44
party representation guidelines 3.39, 13.03–13.04, 13.15–13.19, 13.20–13.23
misunderstanding between counsel and arbitrator
avoidance mechanisms 22.03
Belgium
oaths in arbitration 20.40
best alternative analysis 28.32–28.33
best practices 12.07–12.08
bias
arbitrators, freedom from 23.24
waiver of 1.28
bifurcation 12.34, 12.37
breach of good faith 7.43
bribery
enforcement of arbitral awards 32.35
public policy and interest, and 32.44–32.51
Building Information Modelling (BIM) 35.93
burden of proof
arbitrability 7.47, 7.50
arbitration, role in 36.07–36.08
award enforcement 7.47, 7.50
discovery in foreign proceedings conflicts 16.12
establishment, importance of 36.04
interim measures 15.14
principle 36.06, 36.09
relevance of documents requested 17.19
shifting 36.43–36.44
adjudicators’ decisions 36.33–36.42, 36.44
arbitrator’s decision impact on 36.08–36.42
de novo hearings 36.18–36.20
difficulties with 36.28–36.42
judicial powers to open up, review and revise 36.33–36.42
orthodox interpretation 36.10–36.17, 36.27
recovery of overpayments 36.28–36.32
temporary finality, and 36.33–36.42
Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration
interim measures 15.08
case management conferences 4.21–4.23
caucusing 28.34–28.37, 28.41
(p. 452) Chartered Institute of Arbitrators
binding nature of awards 33.33–33.34, 33.36
costs recovery rules 27.31
disciplinary procedures 13.28–13.29
interim relief powers 15.06
role of 36.01
China
ethical conduct 13.07
mediation trends 35.94
China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.36
costs allocation 25.23
expedited arbitration 12.28–12.31
choice of law
legal pluralism, and 31.32–31.33
limitations 31.08
non-state law
arbitration, and 31.10–31.16
arbitration awards, independence of 31.23–31.24
arbitration awards, judicial enforcement 31.17–31.19, 31.28–31.31
benefits of 31.07
dispute resolution, and 31.23–31.31
inconsistencies 31.18–31.22, 31.28–31.31
litigation, and 31.05–31.09
party autonomy, and 31.05, 31.16
party intention, and 31.06
Christianity
arbitration rulings 1.05
oaths and affirmations 20.05, 20.08–20.09
client-centred processes
case management conferences 4.21–4.23
challenges 4.40–4.66
client expectations, care of 5.01–5.11
compromise 4.32–4.39
early identification of issues 4.47
flexibility 4.26–4.31
need for 4.11–4.16
reducing time and costs 4.19–4.39
risk in court proceedings 4.46–4.47
summary judgment procedures 4.37–4.41
codes of conduct
CCBE Rules 3.37, 3.39
IBA Guidelines on Party Representation 3.39, 13.03–13.04, 13.15–13.19
LCIA General Guidelines for the Parties’ Legal Representatives 13.03, 13.20–13.23
LCIA Rules 3.37–3.44
sanctions for misconduct 3.38–3.40, 3.43
self-regulation 3.40–3.41
communication
technology influences on 35.83–35.93
community court 35.90
conditional fee arrangements 26.21–26.22, 27.37, 27.39
confidentiality
mediation 28.43–28.47
third-party funding 26.36
consensus 11.04–11.09
conservatory measures see interim measures
construction contracts
arbitration clauses 36.03
burden of proof, and
adjudicators’ decisions 36.33–36.42, 36.44
de novo hearings 36.18–36.20
establishment, importance of 36.04
judicial powers to open up, review and revise 36.33–36.42
recovery of overpayments 36.28–36.32
shifting, difficulties with 36.28–36.42
shifting, judicial interpretation of 36.08–36.42
temporary finality, and 36.33–36.42
features of 36.03
implied terms 36.28–36.32
stepped dispute resolution clauses 36.02, 36.04–36.05
construction disputes
arbitration 35.20–35.22
arbitrators, active retirement 35.78–35.79, 35.103
arbitrators, diversity of 35.63–35.67
arbitrators, independence of 35.77
case management, and 35.62
costs and delays 35.60–35.62
domestic trends 35.52–35.54
fast-track processes 35.61
flexibility in 35.58
international trends 35.80–35.81
legal standards role in 35.68–35.74
litigation, compared with 35.56–35.59
multi-disciplinary tribunals 35.63–35.67
perspectives on 35.55–35.58
settlement, and 35.75–35.76
stepped approaches 35.45–35.50
collaborative contracting 35.24–35.26
dispute resolution advisors 35.15–35.17
dispute resolution trends 35.01–35.07, 35.10
dispute review boards 35.03, 35.13–35.14, 35.27–35.29
dynamic conflict management 35.15–35.17
filtering systems 35.05
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) 35.05, 35.25–35.26
litigation culture, and 35.06, 35.08–35.09
mediation 35.18–35.19
caucasing 35.44
development 35.32–35.33
lawyers, role in 35.34–35.38
MEDALOA approach 35.50
methods and styles 35.40–35.44
preliminary preparations 35.43
professional role, as 35.39
project mediation 35.30
stepped approaches 35.45–35.50
trends 35.31, 35.51
‘Quiet Revolution’ 35.04–35.05, 35.23
‘real time’ jobsite resolution 35.27–35.30
relational contracting 35.12
stepped resolution approaches 35.45–35.50
(p. 453) contingency fee arrangements 26.21–26.22, 27.37, 27.39
corruption
arbitrators’ power to investigate 21.29
public policy and interest, and 32.35, 32.38, 32.44–32.51
costs see also funding
agreement protocols 25.44, 25.48
allocation of liability for 25.06
anticipated 25.02
awards, time limits for 25.48
breakdown of 2.16
central costs 25.10, 25.12
classification of 25.10–25.12
common practices 25.19
conduct in proceedings, and 25.28–25.35, 25.48
counsel’s fees 26.11–26.12, 27.12, 27.14
discretion, principles of 25.14–25.39
expert witnesses 26.13–26.18
features of 25.13
incentives, as 25.07–25.08
institutional charges 26.06–26.07
legal representation, for 25.21–25.22
limitations on arbitrators’ powers 21.35–21.36
management, importance of 26.01–26.04, 26.38
miscellaneous 26.19
offers of settlement 25.41–25.42, 25.48
party costs 25.10
perceptions of 25.03–25.05
recovery 27.55–27.56
administrative and procedural costs 27.12–27.13
allocation difficulties 25.40–25.45, 25.48
allocation trends 25.24–25.27, 25.36–25.39
categories eligible for 27.09–27.14
contested costs 27.15–27.50
contingency fee arrangements 27.37, 27.39
cost shifting 25.06, 25.39
criteria 27.04–27.08
genuine and demonstrable 27.06
legal costs 27.14, 27.45
management and staff costs 27.27–27.33, 27.53
purposes of arbitration, for 27.07
reasonable and necessary 25.07, 27.08
success basis 25.20–25.27, 25.46
third-party funding 27.02–27.03, 27.34–27.50, 27.54
security for 25.43
tribunal fees and expenses 26.08–26.10
Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe
code of conduct 3.37, 3.39
counsel see also behaviour in tribunals
arbitrators’ powers to disqualify 21.30–21.33
in-house, costs recovery 27.02–27.03, 27.17–27.26, 27.52
orientation 22.01
CourtCall 35.87
courts, generally
interpretation role 1.01–1.06
cross-examination 18.13–18.18
benefits 18.22–18.23
disadvantages 18.10–18.11, 18.13, 18.21
preparation 18.25–18.26
rules 11.33
time limits 18.15
damages-based agreements 26.21, 26.23
de novo hearings 36.18–36.20
discovery see also requests to produce
broad vs narrow interpretation 16.01–16.03
foreign proceedings conflicts
burden of proof 16.12
discretionary factors 16.08–16.12
flexible approach 16.06–16.07
lack of receptivity 16.11
resolution difficulties 16.09–16.11
strict approach 16.04–16.05
US Federal Rules 16.01–16.03, 16.13
dispute resolution, generally see also construction disputes; mediation
development, influences on 35.82
active retirement trends 35.78–35.79, 35.103
behavioural science 35.99–35.102
credentialling 35.104–35.107
globalization 35.94–35.98
legal education trends 35.104–35.105
technology 35.83–35.93
document presentation see also evidence
guidance on 11.34
documents only arbitration 12.38
drug trafficking 32.38
efficiency see procedural efficiency
electronic transcripts 35.85
email 35.83
emergency arbitrators
application, key features 14.07
disadvantages 14.35–14.36
emergency, definition 14.15–14.21
enforceability 14.27–14.32
interim relief powers 15.05, 15.10
jurisdiction 14.03
market need for 14.22–14.26
purpose 14.02
SCC Rules 3.26–3.27
vs court-ordered interim measures 14.02, 14.10–14.13
‘encounter common ley’ 32.07
enforcement of arbitral awards
admissibility 7.51
applicable law 8.42
(p. 454) arbitrability 7.04, 7.16, 7.22–7.24, 7.26, 7.31, 7.37–7.51
bribery, and 32.35
burden of proof 7.47, 7.50
convention rules 7.44–7.48, 8.42, 21.29
formal validity 7.45–7.46
illegal acts or contracts, and 32.20, 32.26–32.27, 32.35–32.42
mediation, and 28.48–28.50
non-arbitrable subject matter 7.44
non-existence of agreement 7.49
non-state choice of law, and 31.17–31.22, 31.28–31.31
public policy or interest, and 32.20, 32.26–32.27, 32.33–32.42
scope issues 7.50
setting aside 7.37–7.43, 7.48
substantive validity 7.47–7.48
unenforceable awards 21.29
English law
choice of
arbitration, and 31.10–31.16
arbitration awards, independence of 31.23–31.24
arbitration awards, judicial enforcement of 31.17–31.19, 31.28–31.31
dispute resolution, and 31.23–31.31
inconsistencies and limitations 31.03–31.04, 31.18–31.22, 31.28–31.31
international arbitration, and 31.01–31.02
legal pluralism, and 31.32–31.33
litigation, and 31.05–31.09
recognition and enforcement of judgments rules 31.28–31.31
reputation, and 31.01–31.02
precedents, role of 32.11
principles of morality 32.10–32.12, 32.38–32.40
public policy or interest
arbitration law, and 32.32–32.61
conflicts of law 32.26–32.30
foreign judgments, enforcement 32.26–32.30, 32.43–32.51
historical development 32.05–32.24
illegal acts or contracts 32.20, 32.26–32.27, 32.35–32.42
legal challenges 32.14–32.23
limitations of doctrine 32.21–32.23
private international law, and 32.25–32.31, 32.39–32.51
reasonableness test 32.19
restraint of trade 32.19
eQuibbly 35.88
ethics see also misconduct
arbitrators, morality of 23.03–23.05
behaviour trends 13.01–13.02, 13.05, 13.30
institutional guidelines
arbitrators’ conduct 3.12, 3.37–3.44
justice, and 23.72–23.76
principles of morality 32.10–32.12, 32.38–32.40
third-party funding 26.34
evidence see also discovery
admissibility of 37.09
document presentation rules 11.34
perjury, proof of 20.16–20.19
requests to produce 37.16
burden of proof 17.19
discovery, difference from 17.05
good faith, and 17.33
identification requirement 17.08
materiality requirement 17.18–17.25
narrow and specific requirement 17.04–17.05, 17.07, 17.09–17.17
possession, custody, or control 17.26–17.34
scope of production 17.05–17.06
timing 17.21
unreasonable burden 17.34
taking, processes
civil law jurisdictions, in 37.09
common law jurisdictions, in 37.08–37.09
importance 37.07
national and international arbitrations, in 37.10–37.20
taking, rules for 13.08
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.37
good faith 25.29–25.30, 37.20
oaths and affirmations 20.36
requests to produce 17.05–17.34, 37.16
witness testimony 20.36, 37.17
expedited arbitration
benefits 12.31
common features 12.29
deadlines 12.26, 12.30
disadvantages 12.31
drafting clauses for 12.23–12.33
LCIA Rules 3.13, 3.19–3.23
reasons for 12.24
SCC Rules 12.27–12.31
time extensions 12.26
UNCITRAL Model Law 3.21
use trends 12.32
expert witnesses see also cross-examination
appointment, reasons for 19.02–19.03, 19.06
challenging 19.12–19.16
ethics 19.10
expert conferencing 19.07
expert teams and stars 19.17–19.20
independence 19.11
oaths and affirmations 20.13
vs consultants 19.09
fast track arbitration see expedited arbitration
fees
counsel’s fees 26.11–26.12, 27.12, 27.14
determination of 2.27
(p. 455) expert witness fees 26.13–26.18
tribunal fees and expenses 26.08–26.10
finality, principle of 33.33–33.40
Finland
costs allocation, success basis 25.21
foreign judgments
arbitration awards, differences from 31.28
enforcement, under English law
domestic treatment, differences from 32.53–32.55, 32.58
EU judgments 32.55–32.56
public policy, and 32.26–32.30, 32.43–32.51
recognition, and 31.28–31.31, 32.43–32.51
France
applicable law, transnational approach 9.31–9.32
arbitrability 7.25–7.29, 7.38, 7.40, 7.51
arbitration awards
annulment 1.23
binding nature 33.37
setting aside 7.38, 7.40
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.10–22.11, 22.46
costs allocation trends 25.36–25.37
kompetenz-kompetenz negative effect, approach to 7.25–7.29
fraud 32.38
arbitration awards obtained by way of 20.31
arbitrators’ powers to investigate 21.29
foreign judgments, enforceability 32.53–32.59
free trade agreements
jurisdiction conflicts 1.31
frustration
judicial review 29.31–29.43
functus officio principle see also termination of proceedings
definition 24.01–24.02, 24.45
historical development 24.01
funding 26.20, 26.40
attorney-led methods 26.21–26.23
conditional fee arrangements 26.21–26.22, 27.37, 27.39
damages-based agreements 26.21, 26.23
third-party funding 26.26–26.30
benefits 26.31–26.32
disadvantages and criticisms 26.33–26.37, 27.44
German Institution of Arbitration (DIS) 2.25–2.27
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.33–22.35
expedited arbitration 12.29–12.30
Germany
arbitrability 7.42, 7.49, 7.51
arbitration awards
binding nature 33.37
setting aside 7.42
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.12–22.15, 22.25–22.27
costs allocation, success basis 25.21
oaths in arbitration 20.41
globalization 35.94–35.98
good faith
breach of 7.43
conduct in proceedings 25.29–25.30
requests to produce 17.33
Greece
mediation framework 35.95
group of countries doctrine 8.17–8.18, 9.33
guerrilla tactics see behaviour in tribunals
harm and urgency
interim measures 15.13–15.23
Heilbron Guidelines, document presentation 11.34
Hinduism
oaths and affirmations 20.10
Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre
arbitration awards, binding nature 33.33, 33.35
choice of language rules 10.16
emergency arbitration 14.06–14.07, 14.32
model clause 8.08–8.09
International Court of Justice
interim measures 15.18, 15.21–15.22, 15.27
illegal acts or contracts
public policy or interest, and 32.20, 32.26–32.27, 32.35–32.42
violation, in arbitration law 32.52–32.61
India
judicial specialization 30.10
institutional arbitration
efficiency of 2.09–2.17
vs ad hoc arbitration 2.04–2.08
insurance
arbitration funding, for 26.24–26.25, 27.36, 27.39
interim measures 15.29 see also emergency arbitrators
arbitral institution rules 15.05–15.07
burden of proof 15.14
CIArb Rules 15.06
definition 14.01
emergency arbitrators, and 14.02, 14.10–14.13, 15.10
enforceability 14.28, 15.11–15.12
harm requirement 15.13–15.20
ICC Rules 15.17, 15.23, 15.26
jurisdiction 15.27–15.28
LCIA Rules 15.06
lex arbitri 15.07–15.12
likelihood of success, and 15.24–15.26
national courts role 15.02–15.03
purpose 14.01, 15.01, 15.18
UNCITRAL Model Law 15.07–15.08, 15.20
urgency requirement 15.21–15.23
international arbitration, generally
applicable law, Mustill’s approach 8.28–8.35
arbitration agreements 6.06–6.09
attractions of 31.10–31.13
benefits 6.01, 6.29
contract clauses 6.06
disadvantages 6.18–6.23
institutional vs ad hoc arbitration 2.04–2.08
lex arbitri 6.13
limitations 6.27
purpose 6.01
role of law 6.14–6.17
(p. 456) seat of arbitration 6.13, 6.15
submission agreements 6.07–6.09
transnational approach 8.31–8.35, 8.37, 9.30–9.39
International Bar Association
conduct of arbitration guidelines 6.23
evidence taking rules 6.23
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.37
development 37.14–37.15
good faith 25.29–25.30
oaths and affirmations 20.36
requests to produce 17.05–17.34, 37.16
witness testimony 20.36, 37.17
party representation guidelines 3.39, 13.03–13.04, 13.15–13.19, 13.31
requests to produce
burden of proof 17.19
discovery, difference from 17.05
good faith, and 17.33
identification requirement 17.08
materiality requirement 17.18–17.25
narrow and specific requirement 17.04–17.05, 17.07, 17.09–17.17
possession, custody, or control 17.26–17.34
scope of production 17.05–17.06
timing 17.21
unreasonable burden 17.34
International Centre for Dispute Resolution Rules
arbitration awards, binding nature 33.33, 33.35
termination of proceedings 24.13–24.16
witness testimony 20.33
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
anti-misconduct powers 13.11, 13.14
arbitration awards, annulment 2.13
costs allocation trends 25.27
interim measures 15.25, 15.27
oaths and affirmations 20.35
Secretariat role 2.13
summary dismissal 12.41, 12.43
summary judgment procedures 4.37–4.39
third-party costs recovery 27.41
witness testimony 20.35
International Chamber of Commerce Arbitration Rules
arbitration awards
appeals 29.41
binding nature 33.33, 33.35
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.23–22.31
case management 4.21, 12.07
choice of language rules 10.14–10.15
costs recovery 25.16, 25.32, 27.13, 27.24
efficiency requirement 12.06
fairness and impartiality 4.34
group of countries doctrine 9.33
interim measures 15.17, 15.23, 15.26
model clause 8.03
seat of arbitration conflicts 3.29
Secretariat role 2.12
summary dismissal 12.39
witness testimony 20.34
International Law Association
abuse of process rules 33.30–33.31
international law, generally
choice of law principles 31.05–31.08
public policy, and 32.32, 32.62–32.63, 32.66–32.69
treaties and agreements, choice of arbitration style 2.04–2.08
interpreters
oaths and affirmations 20.13, 20.29
investigations
fraud or corruption, powers of 21.29
investment arbitration
justice, and 23.73–23.74
perceptions of 23.60–23.67
investment treaties
disclosure, possession or control 17.32
jurisdiction conflicts 1.31
Iran-United States Claims Tribunal 2.18–2.21, 13.11
Islam
arbitration in UAE 34.12, 34.14
arbitration rulings 1.05
oaths and affirmations 20.05, 20.10
public policy in UAE 34.43
Shari’ah law 34.12, 34.14, 34.43
‘Italian Torpedoes’ 3.12, 3.48–3.50
iura novit curia 22.41–22.46, 22.54
Japan Commercial Arbitration Association
emergency arbitration 14.06–14.08, 14.32
Judaism
arbitration rulings 1.05
oaths and affirmations 20.05, 20.08–20.09
judicial performance
difficulties with 30.01–30.03, 30.06, 30.28
judicial specialization, and 30.10–30.14
jurisdictional differences, and 30.04–30.05, 30.08–30.09
practitioner education, and 30.03–30.08
arbitral institution approaches 30.18–30.22
conferences and seminars 30.15–30.17
governmental and NGO approaches 30.23–30.25
outreach initiatives 30.18–30.27
private promotion programmes 30.26–30.27
judicial review
nineteenth century law 29.05–29.09
Arbitration Act 1979 29.16–29.30
Arbitration Act 1996 29.44–29.52
case trends 29.48–29.52
frustration 29.31–29.43
historical development 29.01–29.15
judicial inconsistencies 29.16–29.17
kompetenz-kompetenz approach 7.16
law of damages, and 29.50
medieval law 29.02–29.03
public interest in arbitration 29.10–29.15, 29.46
right to
contracting out 29.44–29.45
entrenchment 29.24–29.29
(p. 457) error or question of law 29.16, 29.18–29.21, 29.27–29.28, 29.37, 29.53
excess of power, and 29.53
limitations 29.44–29.52
special case procedure 29.10–29.23, 29.38
supranational agreements 29.22, 29.25
jurisdiction see also choice of law
abuse of process doctrine 33.27–33.32
annulled awards 1.22–1.27
applicable law 1.34–1.37
arbitrability, and 7.34–7.35
conflicts 1.29–1.33
court selection clauses 1.08
interim measures 15.27–15.28
mediation by dual-role neutrals 28.27–28.28
seat of arbitration, applicable law 7.36
substantive arbitrability 7.06–7.10, 7.19–7.29
justice
arbitration approaches to 23.77–23.82
arbitrator’s aim, as 23.68–23.82
best possible outcome 23.78
changing the world 23.69–23.71
community stakes in 23.72–23.76
cultural influences on 23.75
precedents, creating and following 23.79, 23.82
rule of law, and 23.79
societal values, and 23.80
third-party funding, and 26.31
Justinian’s Digest 24.01
kompetenz-kompetenz
arbitrators’ powers 21.16–21.17
negative effect 7.16–7.29
French approach 7.25–7.29
US approach 7.19–7.24
Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration
interim measures 15.08
language see also applicable language
choice of
arbitral institutions rules 10.14–10.16
English, benefits and disadvantages 10.07, 10.09
implications 10.06–10.10
social and cultural influences 10.10
translations 10.06–10.07, 10.10
definition 10.04–10.05
importance in law 10.01
legal education 30.03–30.08
arbitral institution approaches 30.18–30.22
conferences and seminars 30.15–30.17
governmental and NGO approaches 30.23–30.25
outreach initiatives 30.18–30.27
private promotion programmes 30.26–30.27
legal pluralism 31.32–31.33
legitimate expectations, breach of
client presentation of case, inadequate 5.03–5.04
common problems 5.02–5.11
de novo review, lack of 5.10–5.11
dislike of counsel, and 5.07
formalistic approach 5.08–5.09
rushing through pleadings 5.05–5.06
time for proceedings, inadequate 5.02
loi vs droit 1.10
London Court of International Arbitration
history 3.01
model clause 8.04
proceedings
commencement 3.13–3.18
default procedures 3.52
electronic communication/filing 3.12, 3.14–3.16
emergency arbitrators 3.08, 3.12, 3.19–3.28, 14.06–14.08
expedited formation of tribunal 3.13, 3.19–3.23
length of case 3.17–3.18
role and functions 2.14, 2.22–2.24, 3.04
Rules, generally
abuse of process doctrine 33.25
arbitration awards, appeals 29.41–29.42
arbitration awards, binding nature 33.33, 33.35
changing composition of tribunal 21.33
choice of language 10.15–10.16
costs recovery 25.23, 25.33, 25.46–25.47, 27.14, 27.24
efficiency requirement 12.06
emphasis 3.03
expert witness fees 26.15
historical development 3.02–3.05
interim relief powers 15.06
oaths and affirmations 20.32
party representation guidelines 13.03, 13.20–13.23, 13.31, 26.15
purpose 3.52
witness testimony rules 20.32
Rules, of 2014
arbitral seat 3.12, 3.29–3.30
arbitrators, conduct guidelines 3.12, 3.37–3.44
arbitrators, nationality of 3.12, 3.45–3.47
benefits 3.52–3.53
delays and expenses, avoiding unnecessary 3.12, 3.51
disputes relating to land 3.10
drafting 3.06–3.08
electronic communication/filing 3.12, 3.14–3.16
emergency arbitrators 3.08, 3.12, 3.19–3.28, 14.06–14.08
influences on 3.07
Jivraj problem solutions 3.12, 3.45–3.47
multi-party disputes 3.12, 3.31–3.33
nationality, interpretation 3.11
party representation 3.12, 3.34–3.36, 13.03, 13.20–13.23, 13.31, 26.15
revisions 3.09–3.12
sanctions for misconduct 3.38–3.40, 3.43, 13.20
Slovenia problem solutions 3.12, 3.34–3.36
specific performance of promise to arbitrate 3.12, 3.48–3.50
West Tankers problem solutions 3.12, 3.48–3.50
summary dismissal 12.37–12.39
(p. 458) market value
arbitrators, of 23.18–23.24
mediation
arbitration, relationship with 28.02–28.05
benefits, generally 28.01
construction disputes, in 35.18–35.19
caucasing 35.44
development 35.32–35.33
lawyers role in 35.34–35.38
MEDALOA approach 35.50
methods and styles 35.40–35.44
preliminary preparations 35.43
professional role, as 35.39
project mediation 35.30
stepped approaches 35.45–35.50
trends 35.31, 35.51
dual-role neutrals, by
attitudes to 28.05–28.07
benefits and disadvantages 28.12–28.50, 28.53–28.54
caucusing 28.34–28.37, 28.41
confidentiality 28.43–28.47
conflicting powers or duties 28.29–28.30
coordination 28.17–28.18
cost-saving 28.51
criticism of 28.11
enforcement 28.48–28.50
functions 28.09
immunity 28.31
improper conduct, and 28.25–28.26, 28.35
jurisdictional challenges 28.27–28.28
negative party incentives, and 28.23–28.24
reality testing 28.32–28.33, 28.41
settlement approach 28.15–28.16
globalization, and 35.94–35.97
legal basis for 28.08
methods
facilitative 28.10–28.11, 28.38
preliminary indication of views 28.40–28.41
perceptions, national variations 35.94–35.96
principles 28.01
unsuccessful, implications 28.02
waiver, applicability 28.46, 28.49
Mexico
costs allocation, success basis 25.22
kompetenz-kompetenz negative approach 7.28
midnight clauses 8.06–8.07
misconduct
arbitrators, by 13.24–13.29
CIArb disciplinary procedures 13.28–13.29
cultural interpretations 13.07
guerrilla tactics 13.05–13.07, 13.30
IBA Guidelines on Party Representation 3.39, 13.03–13.04, 13.15–13.19, 13.31
LCIA General Guidelines for the Parties’ Legal Representatives 13.03, 13.20–13.23, 13.31
parties, by 13.05–13.23
procedural powers regarding 13.11–13.14
reduction mechanisms 13.08–13.10
sanctions for 3.38–3.40, 3.43, 13.17, 13.20
model clauses
disadvantages 8.06–8.07, 8.38
ICC 8.03
LCIA 8.04
SIAC 8.05
nationality
arbitrators, of
LCIA Rules 3.12, 3.45–3.47
negative effect see kompetenz-kompetenz
Netherlands
arbitration awards, annulment 1.26
non-consensual powers 3.32
neutrality 12.09–12.10
New York Convention
arbitration awards
appeals 29.42
binding nature 33.39–33.40
enforcement 7.44–7.48, 8.42
formal validity 7.45
substantive validity 7.47–7.48
unenforceable 21.29
benefits 6.02–6.04, 11.12
choice of law clauses, validity 7.33
conflicts of law rules 9.12–9.14, 9.28
consensus rules 11.04–11.05
emergency arbitrators 3.27, 14.28, 14.31
extraterritorial jurisdiction 8.32
‘Italian Torpedoes’ 3.49–3.50
judicial education 30.22
limitations 8.42
most favourable right provision 7.46
non-arbitrable subject matter 7.44
non-existence of agreement 7.49
public policy interpretation 32.01–32.02
seat of law, applicability 9.28
separability principle 8.42–8.43
in writing requirement 9.11
NGOs
judicial education initiatives 30.25
non-arbitrable subject matter 7.44
oaths and affirmations
arbitration, use in 20.28–20.31, 20.44
different jurisdictional approaches 20.39–20.43
law of the seat, and 20.37
procedural rules 20.32–20.38
prohibition 20.40
definitions 20.04
expert witnesses 20.13
interpreters 20.13
justice, historical role in 20.05–20.07
lawfulness test 20.12
persons who may administer 20.13
prescribed wording 20.08–20.11, 20.13
(p. 459) religious use of 20.05, 20.08–20.10
solemn affirmations 20.11
use trends 20.03
witness testimony, and 20.14, 20.32
online dispute resolution 35.86–35.90
oral hearings
interim relief, and 15.07
rules for 11.33
Paris Arbitration Rules
costs recovery 27.28
parties see legitimate expectations; third-party
party autonomy
arbitrability, and 7.32–7.33, 7.35
arbitration agreements, and 7.12–7.15, 9.09–9.10
choice of law, and 31.05, 31.16
summary dismissal, and 12.43
perjury
arbitration proceedings, in 20.29–20.31
conviction, proof required for 20.16–20.19
prevention by oath 20.07
prosecution
judicial powers 20.20
sanctions and sentencing 20.15, 20.24–20.26
seriousness, judicial views on 20.21
Permanent Court of Arbitration
role of 2.07, 2.14
predictability 12.09–12.10, 12.14
prestige 23.53–23.59
private international law
public policy or interest in English law 32.25–32.31, 32.39–32.51
procedural arbitrability 7.07–7.10, 7.19–7.24, 7.29, 7.51
procedural efficiency
attitudes to 12.01–12.02
benefits of arbitration, and 12.09–12.14
best practices 12.07–12.08
duration of cases, compared with litigation 12.03–12.04
flexibility benefits 12.01, 12.05
institutional requirements 12.06
‘least worst’ alternative, as 12.05–12.06
procedural fairness model 1.18–1.21
public policy or interest
arbitration, and
abuse of process 33.24
initiatives 22.72–22.77
English law, in
arbitration law, and 32.31–32.61
conflicts of law 32.26–32.30
foreign judgments, enforcement 32.26–32.30, 32.43–32.51
historical development 32.05–32.23
illegal acts or contracts 32.20, 32.26–32.27, 32.35–32.42
legal challenges 32.14–32.23
limitations of doctrine 32.21–32.23
private international law, and 32.24–32.30, 32.39–32.51
reasonableness test 32.19
restraint of trade 32.19
importance 32.01
judicial review, and 29.10–29.15, 29.46
legal norms, and 32.68–32.71
national influences on 32.03
nature, complexity and dynamics 32.01–32.02
transnationalism, and 32.32, 32.62–32.63, 32.66–32.70
UAE, in
arbitration award enforcement 34.40
interpretation 34.43
Islamic Shari’ah law, and 34.43
principles of 34.42–34.44
recovery of costs see under costs
remand of proceedings 24.19–24.28
institutional rules 24.20, 24.21
reconstitution without remand 24.29–24.34
time limits 24.25–24.28
remedies
recovery of overpayments 36.28–36.32
specific performance of promise to arbitrate 3.12, 3.48–3.50
remittal of proceedings see remand
remuneration
arbitrators 23.16–23.44
judicial 23.16–23.17
market value, and 23.18–23.24
maximising 23.32–23.44
social capital, and 23.25–23.28
specialization, and 23.29–23.31
reputation 23.42, 23.45–23.47
fame, and 23.48–23.52
prestige, and 23.53–23.59
requests to produce 37.16
burden of proof 17.19
discovery, difference from 17.05
good faith, and 17.33
identification requirement 17.08
materiality requirement 17.18–17.25
narrow and specific requirement 17.04–17.05, 17.07, 17.09–17.17
possession, custody, or control 17.26–17.34
scope of production 17.05–17.06
timing 17.21
unreasonable burden 17.34
resuscitation of duty 24.17–24.19
sanctions
arbitrators’ powers to impose 21.26–21.29
misconduct, for 3.38–3.40, 3.43, 13.17, 13.20
perjury, for 20.24–20.26
witness intimidation, for 21.27–21.28
seat of arbitration
annulled awards at 1.22–1.27
applicable law 9.19–9.20, 9.24–9.29
(p. 460) arbitrability 7.36
definition 6.15
ICC rules on conflicts 3.29
international arbitration, in 6.13, 6.15
language of 10.25
oaths rules 20.37
separability principle 1.08, 7.12–7.15, 8.42–8.43, 9.09–9.10
setting aside
arbitrability 7.37–7.43, 7.48
remand of proceedings 24.20–24.21
UNCITRAL Rules 7.40, 24.20, 24.24
Sikhism
oaths and affirmations 20.10
Singapore International Arbitration Centre
arbitration awards, binding nature 33.33, 33.35
choice of language rules 10.16
emergency arbitrators 3.26–3.27, 14.06–14.07, 14.29, 14.32
expedited arbitration 12.27–12.28, 12.30–12.32
model clause 8.05
summary dismissal 12.40
social capital 23.25–23.28
soft law vs hard law 1.10–1.13
Spain
arbitrability 7.49
expert witnesses 19.05
specialization 23.29–23.31
specific performance
promise to arbitrate 3.12, 3.48–3.50
Stockholm Chamber of Commerce Arbitration Institute
choice of language rules 10.15
costs allocation 25.23
emergency arbitrators 3.26–3.27
expedited arbitration 12.27–12.31
summary dismissal 12.37
submission agreements 6.07–6.09
substantive arbitrability 7.07–7.10, 7.19–7.28
substantive validity, award enforcement 7.47–7.48
summary dismissal
abusive motions, restrictions on 12.45
benefits 12.36, 12.46
bifurcation, and 12.34, 12.37
cost-shifting rule 12.45
disadvantages 12.42–12.44
documents only arbitration 12.38
drafting clauses for 12.34–12.45
efficiency, and 12.43–12.44, 12.46
enforcement 12.46
ICC Rules 12.39
ICSID Rules 12.41, 12.43
LCIA Rules 12.37–12.39
party autonomy, and 12.43
SCC Rules 12.37
SIAC Rules 12.40
summary judgment, distinction from 12.34–12.35
UNCITRAL Rules 12.37
summary judgment
procedures 4.37–4.41
summary dismissal, distinction from 12.34–12.35
Sunday hearings 1.28
Sweden
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.20, 22.32
oaths in arbitration 20.40
Switzerland
arbitration awards
binding nature 33.37
setting aside 7.40
arbitrators’ initiatives 22.16–22.18, 22.43, 22.46
costs allocation 25.23, 25.36–25.37
emergency arbitrators 3.26–3.27
kompetenz-kompetenz negative approach 7.28
oaths in arbitration 20.41
transnational approach, applicable law 9.37
technology
Building Information Modelling (BIM) 35.93
dispute resolution trends, and 35.83–35.93
electronic transcripts 35.85
online dispute resolution services 35.86–35.90
video streaming/conferencing 35.85–35.90
temporary measures of protection see interim measures
termination of proceedings
applicable law variations 24.06
certainty, need for 24.07
continuing mandates 24.24, 24.43–24.44
finality, and 24.05–24.16
functus officio, definition 24.01–24.02, 24.45
practical issues 24.03–24.04
public and private interests in 33.41–33.44
reconstitution without remand 24.29–24.34
res iudicata doctrine, and 24.06
resuscitation of duty 24.17–24.19
settlement agreements, and 24.35–24.40
statutory and institutional rules on 24.08
time limits for 24.25–24.28
UNCITRAL Rules 24.08–24.10
terrorism 32.38
Tokyo Maritime Arbitration Commission
costs allocation 25.23
translations 10.06–10.07, 10.10
transnationalism
applicable law approaches 8.31–8.35, 8.37, 9.30–9.39
costs allocation principles 25.38–25.39
development, influences on 9.35–9.38
limitations and problems 9.33–9.34
public policy, and 32.32, 32.62–32.63, 32.66–32.70
UNCITRAL Model Law 2.27
arbitration awards
appeals 29.42
binding nature 33.33, 33.35, 33.37
setting aside 7.40, 24.20, 24.21
(p. 461) arbitrators’ initiatives 22.32
benefits 6.04–6.05
choice of arbitration style 2.07
choice of language rules 10.16
conflicts of law rules 9.12–9.13, 9.28
consensus rules 11.04–11.05
costs allocation, success basis 25.23
emergency/expedited arbitration 3.21
emergency arbitrators 14.29
fairness and impartiality 4.34
interim measures 15.07–15.08, 15.20
judicial education 30.22
most favourable right provision 7.46
nationality of arbitrators 3.47
remand of proceedings 24.20, 24.21
revisions (2010) 3.07
role of 6.16–6.17
seat of law, applicability 9.28
summary dismissal 12.37
termination of proceedings 24.08–24.10
witness testimony 20.34
in writing requirement 6.17
UNIDROIT Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure
costs allocation 25.38–25.39
United Arab Emirates
arbitration in
arbitrability 34.12–34.15
arbitration agreement formation 34.19–34.20
awards, enforcement 34.37–34.41
awards, formalities 34.30–34.31
awards, insurance 34.33–34.34
conditions precedent 34.25
costs rules 34.32
court support for 34.35–34.36
defaulting parties 34.26
development 34.45–34.46
DIFC, role of 34.03–34.05, 34.07, 34.41, 34.46
evidence rules 34.29
hearings 34.27–34.28
institutional bodies 34.06–34.09
interim relief 34.35–34.36
Islamic Shari-ah law 34.12, 34.14
jurisdictions for 34.03–34.05
legal representation 34.21
limitations 34.12, 34.14–34.15
local infrastructure 34.10–34.11
oaths and affirmations 20.42–20.43
obligation to arbitrate 34.18
procedures 34.16–34.34
terms of reference 34.22
tribunal constitution 34.24
tribunal mandate 34.22–34.23
views on 34.01, 34.05
composition 34.03
common vs civil law jurisdictions 34.03–34.05
public policy
award enforcement, and 34.40
interpretation 34.43
Islamic Shari’ah law, and 34.43
principles of 34.42–34.44
United Kingdom see also English law
arbitration awards
annulment 1.26
binding nature 33.37
foreign judgments, differences from 31.28
independence 31.23–31.24
judicial enforcement 31.17–31.19, 31.28–31.31
setting aside 24.21–24.22
strike outs 4.41
arbitration funding arrangements 26.22–26.23
arbitration law, historical development 29.02–29.15
arbitrators
initiatives 22.07, 22.09, 22.11, 22.22, 22.46
nationality of 3.12, 3.45–3.47
sanctions for misconduct 3.39
costs recovery rules 25.22, 25.37, 27.10, 27.39, 27.41
disclosure rules 17.29–17.30
English law, choice of (see English law)
expert witnesses 19.04, 19.06
foreign judgments
arbitration awards, differences from 31.28
fraud, and 32.53–32.55
recognition and enforcement 31.28–31.31, 32.26–32.30, 32.43–32.51
group of countries doctrine 8.17–8.18
public policy or interest (see English law)
remand of proceedings 24.21–24.22
statutory adjudication 35.14
summary judgments 4.41
termination of proceedings rules 24.11
tiered clauses, interpretation 8.19–8.21
transnational approach, applicability of law 9.33–9.34
United States
arbitrability 7.19–7.24, 7.41, 7.51
arbitration awards
annulment 1.25, 1.27
setting aside 7.41
burden of proof, shifting 36.20
discovery rules 16.01–16.03
interim measures 15.11–15.12
judicial education initiatives 30.19–30.21
jurisdiction conflicts 1.29–1.31
kompetenz-kompetenz negative effect, approach to 7.19–7.24
mediation, modern method 35.94
strike outs and summary judgments 4.41
Supreme Court, guide to conduct in 4.02–4.10
termination of proceedings 24.13–24.16
third-party funding recovery 27.40
transnational approach, applicability of law 9.35–9.36
unjust enrichment 36.28–36.32
video streaming/conferencing 35.85–35.90
Virtual Arbitration 35.88
Virtual Conference Rooms 35.88
(p. 462) witnesses see also expert witnesses
cross-examination 18.13–18.18
benefits 18.22–18.23
disadvantages 18.10–18.11, 18.13, 18.21
preparation 18.25–18.26
rules 11.33
time limits 18.15
fact witnesses 18.02–18.18, 37.17
harm from, assessing 18.06–18.12
hostility 18.09
intimidation, sanctions for 21.27–21.28
language used by 10.28–10.30
limitations 18.19–18.20
oaths and affirmations 20.14, 20.32
preparation 18.19, 18.25–18.26
statements 18.02–18.05, 20.14
testimony
evidence taking rules 37.17
reinforcement of 18.11
untruthful 18.20
video streaming 35.85, 35.90
World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration Rules
costs allocation 25.23
witness testimony 20.33
World Trade Organization Appellate Body 13.11
worst alternative analysis 28.32–28.33