1.01 This is a book about three legal instruments:1 Put together, the three instruments constitute a package governing jurisdiction and the recognition of judgments in wide areas of civil and commercial litigation. 1.02 The three instruments do not all have the same legal nature. Brussels 2012 is a regulation of the European Union—the equivalent of legislation—and it applies as such in the Member States.6 Lugano 2007 and Hague are both international agreements and consequently form part of the international legal system. However, since the European Union is a...
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