- Capital markets — Financial regulation — Financial stability
This chapter discusses the regulatory techniques in the international capital markets. Regulation, as it is usually understood, emanates from a national (or perhaps sub-national) authority and operates locally. Capital markets predate the nation state and have been boundary blind. So, how have modern international capital markets been regulated? Different approaches have waxed and waned in popularity, but several broad groupings can be discerned: inaction; unilateralism; formal and informal cooperative efforts; and international or supra-national initiatives. The different regulatory approaches operating in modern international capital markets are not mutually exclusive; they often coexist or interact, in both a positive and negative manner. Ultimately, the different regulatory approaches to international capital markets, which ones dominate, which ones wither away, have been shaped by the geopolitical forces of empire, the emergence of the supra-national state, and hegemony.
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