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Part I Introduction, 1 The Business of Carriage of Goods

From: Carriage of Goods by Sea (3rd Edition)

Stephen Girvin

From: Oxford Legal Research Library (http://olrl.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 15 June 2024

Cargo claims — Carrier's obligations — Carrier's rights and immunities — Charter parties — Shipper's obligations and immunities — Ship’s delivery orders — Contract

This chapter provides an overview of the business of carriage of goods by sea. Cargoes carried by sea include raw materials, such as oil, gas, coal, and iron ore. Agricultural commodities and manufactured goods are also carried by sea, together with industrial materials. The nature of the goods carried and their size determine the contractual relationships between trading parties and counterparties. Bulk goods require different treatment from general cargoes, containerized cargoes, and refrigerated cargoes. The chapter then considers some of the main vessel or ship types and their characteristics as a means to assist in understanding the cargo disputes which may arise. It also looks at the freight market and the charterparty market. Contracts for the international sale of goods typically involve a seller (the shipper) located in one country, and a buyer in a different country; most parties make use of specialized agents, including forwarding agents, loading brokers, and shipbrokers. The responsibilities of sellers and buyers under the contracts of sale will depend upon the terms of the contract entered into. Finally, the chapter explores contracts of affreightment before studying cargo claims.

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